Question 1:

The correct answer is B.

This is a “Reasoning Within the Text” Question. This type of question urges you to integrate different components of the text to respond to the question most efficiently. Here, you must evaluate the author's use of an argument or claim and determine how it helps the author's intentions. In this question, you are asked to determine if the author’s claim is concerned with “the low road” policy, as it will reduce the competitiveness of the answers provided:

A. As can be seen in the first paragraph of the text, “International trade” is mentioned alongside “technological innovations”, “deregulation” and “changes in the nature and structure of work”. However, these factors are regarded as challenges faced that will negatively affect workers and employers when the “low road” approach is utilized. International trade is just ONE of many factors that will be affected, not the ONLY one. Therefore, this is not the correct answer.

B. The author has used two distinct examples in which they mention the United States in particular. Initially, in the third paragraph, the author shows concern for 40% of the United States' workforce that belongs to the “low-road” firms, as they receive no formal training beyond a high school education. The United States is mentioned for the second time in the sixth paragraph and writes: “For the United States to compete in an eventual global economy based on skilled workers and quality products, additional employer investment in training is needed now.” This makes B the most suitable answer.

C. Although technology has been mentioned several times as a positive factor, the author's focus is the United States, where “high-road” firms account for perhaps 20 percent of employees.” This is not the correct answer.

D. Although the competitiveness of less-developed nations could be reduced by adherence to “the low road”, the author's focus is on the international competitiveness of the United States. This is not the correct answer.

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