1. The incubation time (time from disease onset to the manifestation of symptoms) for rabies is variable. Based on the information provided in the passage, which of the following locations if bitten by a rabid animal would contribute to the disease having the shortest incubation time.

a. Torso

b. Neck

c. Hand

d. Foot

Answer: Choice B is the best answer as this is the shortest amount of distance between the virus entering from the outside world and trafficking to the spinal cord and then the brain. The virus would have to travel a further distance to the spinal cord and travel a further distance up the spinal cord if one were bitten in the torso, hand or foot which would increase the overall incubation time.

2. If one were bitten in the foot by a rabid cat, which pathway would the virus utilize if entering an efferent neuron.

a. Axon to dendrites to cell body

b. Axon to cell body to dendrites

c. Dendrites to axon to cell body

d. Dendrites to cell body to axon

Answer: Choice B is the best answer as the passage mentions the neuron being an “efferent neuron” meaning neural impulses will travel from the brain to the effector organs meaning the virus will need to first attack and enter the axon followed by the cell body and then the dendrites before then entering the axon of another neuron. Choices A and C can easily be disregarded as neural impulses travel from the dendrites to the cell body and then the axon. Choices A and C defy this order of events. Choice D is in the opposite orientation and would be the correct answer choice if this was an “afferent neuron”.

3. Rabies can also be contracted from inhaling viral particles from caves where rabid bats reside. Which of the following is most likely correct for how this disease enters the body and causes disease symptoms.

a. Enters the mouth and is absorbed into the bloodstream through oral capillaries

b. Enters the lungs and is absorbed into the bloodstream

c. Enters the esophagus and is absorbed into the lining of the stomach

d. Enters the nose and is absorbed by olfactory receptors

Answer: Choice D is the best answer as the virus must travel through nerves to reach the brain where it ultimately undergoes rapid replication and causes the manifestation of symptoms. Olfactory receptors are directly linked to the olfactory nerves which provide a quick method for the virus to reach brain tissue where it will ultimately replicate and lead to the death of the host.

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