Choosing the residency program that best aligns with your goals is an important task, and what you hope to gain from the program (and how to articulate it) goes hand-in-hand with knowing what some of the best questions to ask residency programs are. Even if you think you’ve made your decision, asking the right questions can help you make a confident choice!

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Article Contents
13 min read

The Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Day-to-Day Operations Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Patient Population Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Feedback Mechanisms Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Program Curriculum and Structure Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Faculty and Mentorship Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Work-Life Balance and Wellness Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Location and Lifestyle Considerations Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Program Reputation Conclusion FAQs

The Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs

Embarking on the path of medical residency is a critical juncture in a medical professional's career. The choice of residency program not only shapes one's professional expertise but also impacts personal growth and life experiences

To put it simply: it goes without saying that you want to make the best choice possible when concretely deciding on which residency program you complete, so it’s super important to understand how to choose your medical specialty. Although it isn’t impossible to swap residency programs (should you change your mind), it’s always best to be as certain as possible! If, perhaps, you are looking to improve your residency application after going unmatched, asking the right questions may play a role in a more successful second round.

Residency interviews have an enormous impact on your chances to match. According to the latest NRMP data, your interpersonal skills, interactions with faculty, and feedback from current residents have the most effect on how directors rank residents. All of this is determined in the interview! Ultimately, the job of the residency directors and interviewers is to ask you residency interview questions to see if you are the right fit. And it’s your job to ask top questions residency programs to see if they are the right fit for you! So, let’s dive in and see which questions you can ask residency programs to find your next professional home!

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Understanding the Residency Program Selection Process

The quest for the perfect residency program is a competitive endeavor. While it’s true that, (for instance), OB-GYN residency interview questions will differ from those asked in Radiology residency , when it comes to asking questions, it’s all about you, regardless of your field.

The stakes are high, and the rewards are significant. Conducting thorough research and preparing a set of insightful questions is crucial to gauge the compatibility between you and the potential residency program. This preparation is a testament to your keen interest and a step towards ensuring the program aligns with your career trajectory. Additionally, showing that you’ve done your homework and have a genuine interest in the program is never a bad thing. It makes it evident that you’re not just applying to a program for reasons of convenience or anything else that may be a less-than-stellar response in the eyes of a program director. Questions from an interviewee always show that they’re invested!

Maybe you have finished submitting your residency application; you’ve got your residency CV and residency personal statement completed and you’re now focused on preparing for your residency interview. Or, perhaps you’re just starting to do research and figuring out your residency prep reading list. No matter where you stand in your pending residency journey knowing what questions to ask is critical, and understanding what important factors you must consider will help you prepare your future questions.

As we already mentioned, your interview performance has the most effect on how the program directors will rank you. When you learn how to create your residency rank order list, you will see that how the interview will also have a huge effect on how you rank the programs. Did the directors address your questions? Did they satisfy your curiosity? Did you hear what you wanted to hear? As you prepare top questions to ask residency programs you interview with, keep some of these topics in mind:

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Day-to-Day Operations

Understanding the daily operations of a residency program provides insight into what your routine might look like and how conducive the environment is for learning and growth. Asking questions before matching is the best way to understand if day-to-day operations in your chosen program align with your expectations.

What does a typical day for a resident look like?

Knowing the daily schedule helps you gauge the workload and the time allotted for various activities, including learning, patient care, and self-study. Overall, this is a very practical question to ask whether or not you’re dead-set on a program or merely exploring it as a second option.

How are the rotations structured?

The structure of rotations provides insight into the breadth and depth of clinical exposure you would receive in different specialties.

What is the ratio of supervision to autonomous work?

This ratio reflects the level of independence you'll have versus the amount of guided instruction, crucial for matching your learning style and experience level. Your preference for autonomous vs. group (or guided) work may be very different from your counterparts, and because this is your educational endeavor and future on the line, it’s crucial that you choose a program that offers a balance of whatever you need – at least to an extent!

How is the program adapting to recent advancements in medical education and technology?

This question sheds light on the program's commitment to staying updated with modern medical practices and technology. Whether you’ve been accepted to one of the top residency programs in Canada, a fairly new or lesser-known program, or, you’re entering a residency program that accepts old graduates (and you’ve been out of the loop for a while), technology will surround you in your residency.

If it doesn’t, or, if your program isn’t adapting and this is something you personally feel is important to your future career, consider a program with a more evolving, modern stance on technology and medical education.

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Patient Population

The diversity and volume of the patient population significantly impact your learning experience, and this can certainly vary by field as well. If, for instance, you want to focus on pediatrics, completing your residency in an area that is mostly senior citizens (or, at a hospital that rarely sees pediatric patients) isn’t typically advised. If emergency medicine is your forte, you may want to ensure you’re matching with a program that puts you in a diverse and booming hospital.

 Without a doubt, you’ll learn from each of the patients you interact with, but you have to ask certain questions to be sure that you’ll be with a suitable population.

What is the demographic composition of the patient population?

A diverse patient demographic provides a rich learning environment, exposing you to various medical conditions and treatment approaches. As we stated above, demographics may play a role in your area of specialization and future goals. You can ask for specific statistics, or just a general overview of what the patient population is currently like.

What opportunities are there to interact with patients from different socioeconomic backgrounds?

These interactions broaden your understanding and empathy, essential traits for a medical professional. A large part of learning is through ‘doing’ and connecting with others whom you may not relate to. It can be hard to understand the patient journey, so immersing yourself into it as much as possible will only make you a better doctor.

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Feedback Mechanisms

Feedback is crucial for personal and professional growth during residency – without feedback, professionals cannot get better at what they do, understand their flaws, and improve for their future patients.

 How is feedback provided to residents?

Knowing the feedback mechanism helps you understand how your performance will be evaluated and how you can improve. But it isn’t just about receiving feedback…it’s how you receive it, and how often, too! For instance, passive remarks made at the end of the day by a superior or an abundance of ‘good job(s)!’ thrown around won’t make much of an impact on you.

Asking questions about feedback is key, because knowing how and when you’ll receive it can help you anticipate what a continuous feedback loop might look like in that program. Knowing that you’ll be given constructive criticism with a healthy dose of praise can set expectations ahead of your first day.

Are there regular performance reviews and what do they entail?

Regular reviews provide structured feedback, helping you track your progress and areas of improvement…but knowing when they happen each year and how formal they are can also help you make your decision (and set expectations). Additionally, knowing whether or not feedback is recorded, one-sided, or anonymous may help you decide which program is best. Remember, performance reviews should help you flourish, improve, and also offer you the opportunity to share your own insights and ask questions.

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Program Curriculum and Structure

The structure and curriculum of a residency program are the backbone of your training. They dictate the learning environment, the breadth and depth of exposure to different medical conditions, and the opportunities for hands-on experience.

It’s absolutely imperative that you choose a program which closely aligns with your own goals and individual (and professional) needs. Asking as many questions as you can will prove beneficial!

What is the curriculum like, and does it align with your goals?

A program's curriculum should align with your long-term career goals. It's crucial to understand the focus areas, the progression between PGY1 and PGY2, the balance between theoretical knowledge and practical exposure, and the opportunities for learning and growth.

How is the program structured, and what are the daily responsibilities?

Understanding the daily grind and the structure of the program will provide a glimpse into your life for the next few years. It's essential to know what is expected of you and what your days will typically look like.

Are there opportunities for research or sub-specialization?

For those inclined towards research or sub-specializing, it's crucial to know the avenues available within the program. There are countless unique medical specializations and sub-specialization opportunities that exist, and even if you have not made your mind up yet, knowing what is available to you within a certain program will undoubtedly help you make a great choice down the road. Knowing what potential opportunities exist can significantly enrich your residency experience and pave the way for a fulfilling career.

Is there any flexibility in the program?

Flexibility in a program could mean opportunities to explore different specialties, to engage in research, or even the possibility of work-life balance. It's crucial to know where the program stands on flexibility to ensure that you’ll be set for success (and may even have wiggle-room if required for either personal or professional reasons).

Are their fellowship opportunities?

Fellowship opportunities post-residency could be a deciding factor for many. It's an indicator of the program’s commitment to fostering advanced learning and specialization and may help open doors for you for better learning and professional growth as a resident. For instance, if you were hoping for a fellowship to enhance your skills and abilities, and you discover that one is not available in a particular program, this knowledge will help you better weigh your options.

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Faculty and Mentorship

Learning is often a very individual experience, but when it comes to training in residency, mentorship is a cornerstone of a fruitful residency experience. To put it simply: we often learn from the greats! Having access to guidance, support, and inspiration from accomplished faculty members can significantly impact your growth as a medical professional.

What is the faculty-to-resident ratio?

A favorable faculty-to-student ratio ensures personalized attention and guidance, enhancing the learning experience. This is important to consider (and ask about) if you’re hoping for a fairly balanced ratio. Some residency programs admit 2 individuals per year, while others admit more than 80 applicants; these numbers may not be indicative of a balanced or unbalanced ratio…but you won’t know until you inquire. That’s precisely what makes this question worth pondering…and asking!

Are there specific mentorship programs in place?

Structured mentorship programs can provide the necessary support and guidance, making the challenging journey of residency a bit smoother. Having a mentor can help improve personal and professional development as a resident and is often something that is important to many applicants. Not having the option for formal mentorship through your potential program (if you were hoping for mentorship) may be a deterrent, and it’s vital to find this information about before making a final decision.

Can you meet or speak with potential mentors?

Having a channel to interact with potential mentors even before deciding on the program can provide valuable insights and set the right expectations. This can provide a lot of clarity and direction, and ultimately help you make your decision. Being able to speak to potential mentors and current or former residents is more reliable than looking for insight on internet platforms where conversations may present biases and unrelated perspectives that can overwhelm and mislead you. There are other, reliable platforms, like FRIEDA, available for residents to connect and discuss common questions and concerns, but doing so 1-on-1 with a mentor from your chosen program may be more enticing and rewarding for you; this will depend on your personal preference.

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Work-Life Balance and Wellness

It’s not all about ‘the grind,’ you have to have a plan to take care of yourself as a resident. The demanding nature of residency programs can often overshadow the importance of work-life balance and wellness. A program that supports the holistic well-being of its residents is indeed a worthy consideration.

How are work hours managed?

Understanding the scheduling and workload is crucial to gauge if the program allows for a balanced lifestyle. This can also help you plan out how you’ll balance other responsibilities in your life; childcare personal hobbies and obligations, financial commitments, sleep schedules, etc.

Are there wellness programs for residents?

Some programs may offer guidance and direction for their residents, such as access to wellness and/or mental health services. Wellness programs reflect a program's commitment to the well-being of its residents, an essential aspect to thrive in a demanding environment.

Support for mental and physical well-being is paramount to ensure you remain healthy and resilient throughout your residency. You are human, and you must look after yourself; ideally, you will ask enough questions about this topic to gauge if your personal needs will be met in your chosen program!

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Location and Lifestyle Considerations

The location of your residency program and the lifestyle it affords can significantly impact your experience. A location that resonates with your personal preferences and a lifestyle that allows you to thrive is crucial for a fulfilling residency journey.

What is the location like?

This question is a bit subjective and broad – how you feel about a location will be very personal and you may have to find your own answers. However, the geographic location, the climate, the culture, and the community vibe are essential factors that could affect your residency experience. Engaging with the locale before making a decision is wise, as is asking any honest questions you can think of about the city or town you’d be completing your residency in, especially if you’re not used to the area.

What is the cost of living in the area?

Understanding the cost of living will help you prepare financially and assess if the residency stipend will cover your expenses comfortably. You don’t want to be blindsided and thrown into debt by moving to a very expensive city without planning.

Are there opportunities for leisure and recreation?

Having avenues for leisure and recreation can provide the necessary respite from the demanding schedule of residency. This goes hand-in-hand with wellness and mental health – you will need an escape and adequate time to do the hobbies and activities you enjoy – it’s best to ask questions to be sure that you’ll be located in an area that allows you to enjoy such things.

Best Questions to Ask Residency Programs: Program Reputation

A program's reputation is a reflection of its quality, the expertise of its faculty, and the success of its alumni. It's an indicator of the level of education and the type of exposure you would receive during your residency.

A newer program, or one with a less-than-stellar reputation might not necessarily be a red flag, but it’s worth considering depending on what type of experience you’re seeking, who you’d like to learn from, and if you’d like a positive reputation tied to your training and abilities as a resident, and eventual expert in your field.

On the same note, a program with a wonderful reputation does not automatically guarantee a good experience, or that you’ll excel as a resident there. But, inquiring about the program reputation is a good place to start.

What is the program's reputation in your specialty?

Understanding a program's standing in your chosen specialty provides insight into the quality of training you'd receive. It also impacts your future employability and professional networking opportunities.

A program’s reputation can also be a personal preference for you, and that is also valid. You may have aspired to work with others in a specific setting in a program that is world renowned; some of the best residency programs in the United States (as well as globally) only admit a handful of applicants each year. This makes many of them highly competitive as they have extremely high standards and only admit applicants who truly stand out in their respective field. For some future residents, understanding the reputation of a program will not only help them make a decision easier, but help motivate them focus on their applications and residency interview question practice if they have not yet already done so.

Are there any notable alumni?

Notable alumni are a testament to a program’s ability to nurture and produce proficient medical professionals. Their achievements reflect the level of mentorship and opportunities available within the program. They also very likely indicate that the program has a reputation to uphold and will meet (or exceed) the expectations of its incoming residents.

How does the program rank nationally?

Talk is good, but data is better! National rankings, while not the sole indicator, provide a benchmark of a program's standards and competitiveness. It’s a reflection of the program's commitment to excellence in education and training that goes beyond promising personal accounts of success and hearsay in the medical community.


Choosing a residency program is a monumental decision that goes beyond merely advancing your medical career. It's about finding a place where you can grow professionally and personally, amidst challenges and opportunities.

The questions outlined in this blog are designed to guide you in making an informed choice; there are dozens of other questions you may potentially concoct; however, these are a good ‘take off’ point if you’re unsure what you should be asking. Each question nudges you to look beyond the obvious and delve into aspects of a residency program that align with your long-term career goals, personal preferences, and overall well-being.

As you engage with different programs, armed with these questions, you're not just seeking a residency position; you're seeking an environment where you can thrive, learn, and contribute. And in this quest, making informed decisions is your strongest ally.


Why is choosing the right residency program crucial?

Selecting the right residency program is a pivotal step in a medical professional's career. It influences not only the level of expertise you acquire but also your professional network and personal growth experiences. 

How competitive is the residency program application process?

The residency application process is highly competitive, requiring thorough preparation and a well-thought-out strategy to enhance your chances of matching with your desired program. Some programs only select a small number of applicants each year (as in 2-4 people), and others may accept 60+.

What factors should I consider when evaluating a residency program’s reputation?

Consider the program’s standing in your chosen specialty, notable alumni, and its national ranking. These factors provide insights into the quality of training and the network you’d be exposed to, so it’s important to ask as many questions as you can to gauge how you feel about a program.

How significant is the curriculum and structure of a residency program?

The curriculum and structure are crucial as they dictate your learning environment, the balance between theoretical and practical exposure, and opportunities for research or sub-specialization. 

What role does mentorship play during residency?

Mentorship is invaluable during residency. It provides guidance, support, and inspiration, significantly impacting your growth as a medical professional. Not all programs offer mentorship, and if you’re somebody who learns best by forming connections and learning from a mentor, this might raise a red flag for you, and you should certainly inquire further before accepting!

How can I maintain a healthy work-life balance during residency?

Understanding the program’s work hours, availability of wellness programs, and support for mental and physical well-being are crucial for maintaining a healthy work-life balance. 

Why is the location of a residency program important?

It might seem insignificant, but the location of your residency affects your lifestyle, cost of living, and opportunities for leisure and recreation (and, future career opportunities should you choose to relocate there permanently). It’s essential to choose a location that resonates with your personal preferences and even your professional, short or long-term goals.

To your success,

Your friends at

BeMo Academic Consulting

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